Why is the global economy constrained by the energy cost of energy?
On April 24, 1974, nearly 18 months after his reelection Mr. Nixon directed, in NSSM (National Security Study Memo) 200, that a comprehensive new study be undertaken to determine the "Implications of World Population Growth for U. S. Security and Overseas interests."
NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL WASHINGTON, D.C. 20606
April 24, 1974
National Security Study Memorandum 200
The Secretary of Defense
The Secretary of Agriculture
The Director of Central Intelligence
The Deputy Secretary of State Administrator, Agency for International Development
SUBJECT: Implications of Worldwide Population Growth for U.S. Security and Overseas Interests
The President has directed a study of the impact of world population growth on US. security and overseas interests. The study should look forward at least until the year 2000, and use several alternative reasonable projections of population growth.
In terms of each projection, the study should assess:
- the corresponding pace of development, especially in poorer countries;
-the demand for US exports, especially of food, and the trade problems the US may face arising from competition for resources; and
-the likelihood that population growth or imbalances will produce disruptive foreign policies and international instability.
The study should focus on the international political and economic implications of population growth rather than its ecological, sociological or other aspects.
The study would then offer possible courses of action for the United States in dealing with population matters abroad, particularly in developing countries, with special attention to these questions:
- What, if any, new initiatives by the United States are needed to focus international attention on the population problem?
- Can technological innovations or development reduce growth or ameliorate its effects?
- Could the United States improve its assistance in the population field and if so, in what form and through which agencies--bilateral, multilateral, private?
The study should take into account the President's concern that population policy is a human concern intimately related to the dignity of the individual and the objective of the United States is to work closely with others, rather than seek to impose our views on others.
The President has directed that the study be accomplished by the NSC Under Secretaries Committee The Chairman, Under Secretaries Committee, is requested to forward the study together with the Committee's action recommendations no later than May 29, 1974 for consideration by the President.
HENRY A. KISSINGER
cc: Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff
IMPLICATIONS OF WORLDWIDE POPULATION GROWTH FOR US. SECURITY AND OVERSEAS INTERESTS
December 10, 1974
CLASSIFIED BY Harry C. Blaney, III SUBJECT TO GENERAL DECLASSIFICATION SCHEDULE OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 11652 AUTOMATICALLY DOWNGRADED AT TWO YEAR INTERVALS AND DECLASSIFIED ON DECEMBER 31,1980.
This document can only be declassified by the White House.
Declassified/Released on 7/3/89 under provisions of E.O. 12356 by F. Graboske, National Security Council
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Executive Summary 51-68
Part One--Analytical Section
Chapter I World Demographic Trends 69-86
Chapter II Population and World Food Supplies 87-93
Chapter III Minerals and Fuel 93-103
Chapter IV Economic Development and Population Growth 103-110
Chapter V Implications of Population Pressures for National Security 110-122
Chapter VI World Population Conference 122-129
Part Two--Policy Recommendations
Section I A U.S. Global Population Strategy 130-142
Section II Action to Create Conditions for Fertility Decline: Population and a Development Assistance Strategy 143
A. General Strategy and Resource for A.l.D. Assistance 143-151
B. Functional Assistance Programs to Create Conditions for Fertility Decline 151-165
C. Food for Peace Program and Population 165-168
Section III International Organizations and other Multilateral Population Programs 168-170
A. UN Organization and Specialized Agencies
B. Encouraging Private Organizations
Section IV Provision and Development of Family
Planning Services, Information and Technology 170-184
A. Research to Improve Fertility Control Technology
B. Development of Low-Cost Delivery Systems
C. Utilization of Mass Media and Satellite Communications System for Family Planning
Section V Action to Develop Worldwide Political and
Popular Commitment to Population Stability 184 186
NSSM 200 made the following recommendations, to mention a few:
· The U.S. would provide world leadership in population growth control.8
· The U.S. would seek to attain its own population stability by the year 2000.9 This would have required a onechild family policy for the U.S., thanks to the phenomenon of demographic momentum, a requirement the authors well understood (the Chinese did not adopt their onechild family policy until 1977).
Have as goals for the U.S.: making family planning information, education and means available to all people of the developing world by 1980,"' and achieving a 2child family m the developing countries by 2000."
The U.S. would provide substantial funds to help achieve these goals.'2
On November 26, 1975, President Gerald R. Ford endorsed the 227 page NSSM 200 report and its recommendations.
The full text of the documents referred to here can be found in:
THE LIFE AND DEATH OF NSSM 200: HOW THE DESTRUCTION OF POLITICAL WILL DOOMED A U.S. POPULATION POLICY, S. Mumford, 1994 ISBN 0 93 7307033. $18.95. Center for Research on Population and Security, P.O. Box 13067, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Phone: (919) 933-7491 FAX: (919) 933-0349